The Use of near Infra-Red Radiation Imaging after Injection of Indocyanine Green (NIR-ICG) during Laparoscopic Treatment of Benign Gynecologic Conditions: Towards Minimalized Surgery. A Systematic Review of Literature

Background and Objectives: To assess the use of near infrared radiation imaging after injection of indocyanine green (NIR-ICG) during laparoscopic treatment of benign gynecologic conditions.

Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed searching 7 electronic databases from their inception to March 2022 for all studies which assessed the use of NIR-ICG during laparoscopic treatment of benign gynecological conditions. Results: 16 studies (1 randomized within subject clinical trial and 15 observational studies) with 416 women were included. Thirteen studies assessed patients with endometriosis, and 3 studies assessed non-endometriosis patients. In endometriosis patients, NIR-ICG use appeared to be a safe tool for improving the visualization of endometriotic lesions and ureters, the surgical decision-making process with the assessment of ureteral perfusion after conservative surgery and the intraoperative assessment of bowel perfusion during recto-sigmoid endometriosis nodule surgery. In non-endometriosis patients, NIR-ICG use appeared to be a safe tool for evaluating vascular perfusion of the vaginal cuff during total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy (RATLH), and intraoperative assessment of ovarian perfusion in adnexal torsion.

Conclusions: NIR-ICG appeared to be a useful tool for enhancing laparoscopic treatment of some benign gynecologic conditions and for moving from minimally invasive surgery to minimalized surgery. In particular, it might improve treatment of endometriosis (with particular regard to deep infiltrating endometriosis), benign diseases requiring TLH and RATLH and adnexal torsion. However, although preliminary findings appear promising, further investigation with well-designed larger studies is needed.

The Role of ICG in Robot-Assisted Liver Resections

Introduction: Robotic-assisted liver surgery (RALS) with its known limitations is gaining more importance. The fluorescent dye, indocyanine green (ICG), is a way to overcome some of these limitations. It accumulates in or around hepatic masses. The integrated near-infrared cameras help to visualize this accumulation. We aimed to compare the influence of ICG staining on the surgical and oncological outcomes in patients undergoing RALS.

Material and methods: Patients who underwent RALS between 2014 and 2021 at the Department of General Surgery at the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, were included. In 2019, ICG-supported RALS was introduced.

Results: Fifty-four patients were included, with twenty-eight patients (50.9%) receiving preoperative ICG. Hepatocellular carcinoma (32.1%) was the main entity resected, followed by the metastasis of colorectal cancers (17%) and focal nodular hyperplasia (15.1%). ICG staining worked for different tumor entities, but diffuse staining was noted in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, ICG-supported RALS lasted shorter (142.7 ± 61.8 min vs. 246.4 ± 98.6 min, p < 0.001), tumors resected in the ICG cohort were significantly smaller (27.1 ± 25.0 mm vs. 47.6 ± 35.2 mm, p = 0.021) and more R0 resections were achieved by ICG-supported RALS (96.3% vs. 80.8%, p = 0.075).

Conclusions: ICG-supported RALS achieve surgically and oncologically safe results, while overcoming the limitations of RALS.

Feasibility of delayed anastomosis for long gap esophageal atresia in the neonatal period using internal traction and indocyanine green-guided near-infrared fluorescence

Management of neonates with long gap esophageal atresia (LGEA) is one of the most challenging situations facing pediatric surgeons. Delayed anastomosis after internal traction for esophageal lengthening was reported as a useful technique for long gap cases. Additionally, the use of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) has gained popularity in pediatric surgery, especially for blood perfusion validation. We report a novel technique for safe and secure anastomosis for LGEA in the neonatal period using internal traction and ICG-guided NIR fluorescence.

Patient and surgical technique: A pregnant woman with polyhydramnios was admitted to the department of obstetrics in our hospital. At 29 weeks of gestation, ultrasound showed mild polyhydramnios and absence of the fetal stomach. A male neonate was born at 38 weeks of gestation with 21 trisomy. EA (Gross type A) was diagnosed based on an X-ray study that showed the absence of gastric bubble with a nasogastric tube showing the “coil-up” sign. Thoracoscopic internal traction and laparoscopic gastrostomy were performed on day 4 after birth. We confirmed the distance between the upper pouch and lower pouch on X-ray. On day 16 after birth, thoracoscopic anastomosis was performed. We successfully performed esophageal anastomosis without tearing the esophageal wall. Blood perfusion of the upper and lower pouch was validated after anastomosis using ICG-guided NIR fluorescence.

Conclusion: Delayed anastomosis for LGEA in the neonatal period using internal traction and ICG-guided NIR fluorescence is safe and feasible.

Role of Qualitative and Quantitative Indocyanine Green Angiography to Assess Mastectomy Skin Flaps Perfusion in Nipple/Skin-Sparing and Skin-Reducing Mastectomies with Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction

Consecutive women scheduled for nipple/skin-sparing/skin-reducing mastectomy between May 2020 and April 2021 were prospectively enrolled. Patients were divided into Group 1 in the absence of superficial and full-thickness necrosis (SN; FTN) and Group 2 in the presence of both. T1 (time between ICG injection and the initial perfusion of the least perfused MSF area), ICG-Q1, and ICG-Q% (absolute and relative perfusion values of the least vascularized area) were collected.

38 breasts were considered. FTN was reported in 4 breasts (10.5%) and SN in 3 (7.9%). The two groups statistically differ in T1 (Group2 > Group1) and ICG-Q% (Group1 > Group2) (p < 0.05). T1 could statistically predict ICG-Q1 and ICG-Q%. Both quantitative values have a sensitivity of 57% and a NPV of 89%; ICG-Q% shows higher specificity (81% vs 77%) and PPV (40% vs 36%).

Quantitative ICG angiography may additionally reduce MSF necrosis. Moreover, longer T1 may indicate possible postoperative necrosis. Considering these factors, intraoperative changes of reconstructive strategy could be adopted to reduce reconstructive failure.

Insufficient Closing Forces of Yasargil Titanium Clips in Two Small Aneurysms Detected with Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Videoangiography

Aneurysm clips must have adequate closing forces because residual blood flow in clipped aneurysms may result in aneurysm recurrence. Such flow can be intraoperatively detected by visual inspection, microvascular Doppler sonography, indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-V), angiography, and puncture.

We present two patients with ruptured very small middle cerebral artery aneurysms (3 and 2.9 mm). The necks of both aneurysms were microsurgically clipped with Yasargil aneurysm clips without any complications.In both aneurysms, visual inspection suggested complete occlusion, but ICG-V showed persistent residual blood flow between the middle parts of the clip blades. The first patient was treated with a 5.4-mm FT744T clip (closing force of 1.47 N). After the ICG-V finding, a second 3.9-mm FT714T clip (closing force of 1.08 N) was placed on the tips of the already implanted clip to increase the closing forces. Subsequent ICG-V did not show any further residual blood flow. In the second patient, the aneurysm was clipped with an 8.0-mm FE764K clip (closing force of 1.77 N). Intraoperative ICG-V showed persistent residual blood flow within the aneurysmal dome despite complete closure of the clip. The clip was repositioned closer to the parent vessel. Consecutive ICG-V did not show any residual blood flow.

Conclusion: Visually undetected incomplete aneurysm occlusion can be revealed with ICG-V. In very small aneurysms, standard closing forces of clips may not be sufficient and complete closure of the clip branches should be intraoperatively validated with ICG-V.

Da Vinci Xi surgical system in the robot-assisted laparoscopic pericystectomy plus indocyanine green fluorescence imaging for hepatic cystic echinococcosis

The clinical efficacy of robot-assisted laparoscopic pericystectomy using the Da Vinci Xi surgical system plus indocyanine green(ICG) fluorescence imaging and the conventional laparotomy for en bloc pericystectomy was compared.

Methods: The clinical data of 7 patients treated by robot-assisted laparoscopic pericystectomy using the Da Vinci Xi surgical system plus ICG fluorescence imaging at our hospital between October 2019 and July 2021 and 15 patients treated by conventional laparotomy for en bloc pericystectomy were retrospectively analyzed.

Result: Compared with the conventional laparotomy group, the intraoperative blood loss was reduced using the Da Vinci surgical system [(225.43 ± 44.75)ml: (521.33 ± 246.34) ml, P = 0.015]. The indwelling time of the urinary catheter was also shorter [2.86 ± 0.75)d: (3.87 ± 0.81)d, P = 0.012]. However, the total expense was increased significantly [(49.9 ± 3.7) thousand RMB: (28.7 ± 5.0) thousand RMB, P < 0.001]. The two groups of patients were not significantly different in operation time, time to flatulence after surgery, time to eat a liquid diet after surgery, length of hospital stay after surgery, time to drainage tube removal, and the incidence of postoperative complications (P = 0.899). Both two groups were followed up for 3-12 months after surgery. The patients were generally good without recurrence or intra-abdominal implantation.

Conclusion: The Da Vinci Xi surgical system could be feasibly and safely applied to the robot-assisted laparoscopic pericystectomy plus ICG fluorescence imaging for Hepatic cystic echinococcosis(HCE). This procedure could effectively remove the hepatic hydatid cysts under the ICG fluorescence imaging with a higher resection rate, causing less trauma and fewer complications.

Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Angiography During Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study

The objective of the present pilot study is to evaluate the intraoperative utility of ICG-FA during bariatric surgery in order to focus future research on a reliable tool to reduce the postoperative leak rate. Thirteen patients (4 men, 30.8%, 9 women, 69.2%) with median age of 52 years (confidence interval, CI, 95% 46.2–58.7 years) and preoperative median body mass index of 42.6 kg/m2 (CI, 95% 36 to 49.3 kg/m2) underwent bariatric surgery with ICG-FA in our center. Three mL of ICG diluted with 10 cc sterile water were intravenously injected after gastric tube creation during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and after the gastric pouch and gastro-jejunal anastomosis creation during laparoscopic gastric by-pass (LGB). For the ICG-FA, Karl Storz Image 1S D-Light system (Karl Storz Endoscope GmbH & C. K., Tuttlingen, Germany) placed at a fixed distance of 5 cm from the structures of interest and zoomed vision modality were used to identify the vascular supply. The perfusion pattern was assessed by the surgical team according to a score. The score ranged from 1 (poor vascularization) to 5 (excellent vascularization) based on the intensity and timing of fluorescence of the vascularized structures.

Results: From January 2021 to February 2022, six patients underwent LSG (46.2%), three patients underwent LGB (23.1%), and four patients underwent re-do LGB after LSG (30.8%). No adverse effects to ICG were observed. In 11 patients (84.6%) ICG-FA score was 5. During two laparoscopic re-do LGB, the vascular supply was not satisfactory (score 2/5) and the surgical strategy was changed based on ICG-FA (15.4%). At a median follow-up of five months postoperatively, leaks did not occur in any case.

Conclusions: ICG-FA during bariatric surgery is a safe, feasible and promising procedure. It could help to reduce the ischemic leak rate, even if standardization of the procedure and objective fluorescence quantification are still missing. Further prospective studies with a larger sample of patients are required to draw definitive conclusions.