Intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has emerged in recent years and is now used in many surgical procedures. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging can guide surgeons in identifying and localizing specific structures and boundaries, which can facilitate the optimization of surgical procedures. The components of the mediastinum are complex and functionally important, making identifying and locating different structures intraoperatively challenging, and NIR fluorescence imaging has potential clinical value in mediastinal surgery. Here we review the applications of NIR fluorescence imaging technology in mediastinal surgery in recent years.

NIR fluorescence imaging has broad research prospects and clinical value in mediastinal tumor boundary imaging, intraoperative imaging of the thoracic duct, neurography, and angiography in mediastinal surgery. Fluorescence imaging has the advantages of high temporal and spatial resolution and can be used for real-time imaging during surgery without considering the hazards of radiation.

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