For hepatocellular carcinoma located in segment , anatomic segment resection can completely remove the tumor-bearing territory while preserving more functional liver parenchyma. However, laparoscopic anatomic segment resection presents significant challenges because of the upward position of the segment , the difficulty in determining the extent, and the complex vascularity involved, thus requiring accurate intraoperative navigation.

With the development of precision surgery, augmented reality-assisted navigation (AR-AN) provides more intraoperative anatomic information by superimposing 3-dimensional (3D) visualization models on the laparoscopic surgery scene in real time, which allows for safe and precise dissection of blood vessels. In addition, the indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging allows real-time detection of tumor boundaries and the extent of liver segment during surgery, thus improving the accuracy of the surgery.

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