With the development of three-dimensional (3D) simulation software, preoperative simulation technology is almost completely established. The remaining issue is how to recognize anatomy three-dimensionally. Extended reality is a newly developed technology with several merits for surgical application: no requirement for a sterilized display monitor, better spatial awareness, and the ability to share 3D images among all surgeons. Various technology or devices for intraoperative navigation have also been developed to support the safety and certainty of liver surgery.

Consensus recommendations regarding indocyanine green fluorescence were determined in 2021. Extended reality has also been applied to intraoperative navigation, and artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the topics of real-time navigation. AI might overcome the problem of liver deformity with automatic registration. Including the issues described above, this article focuses on recent advances in simulation and navigation in liver surgery from 2020 to 2021.


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