Background: This study aimed to correlate the indocyanine green clearance (ICG) test with histopathological grades of liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis to assess its diagnostic accuracy in differentiating normal liver parenchyma from liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. Methods: A total of 82 patients who received a histopathological liver examination, imaging, and ICG test within three months were included in this retrospective study. The histopathological level of fibrosis was graded using the Ishak scoring system, and the patients were divided into five categories: no liver fibrosis (NLF), mild liver fibrosis (MLF), advanced liver fibrosis (ALF), severe liver fibrosis (SLF), and liver cirrhosis (LC). The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test with post hoc pairwise comparison utilizing Mann-Whitney U tests and Bonferroni adjustment was used to analyze differences in the ICG test results between the patient groups. Cross correlation between the individual fibrosis/cirrhosis stages and the score of the ICG test was performed, and the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each model predicting liver fibrosis/cirrhosis.
Results: A significant difference (p ≤ 0.001) between stages of NLF, LF, and LC was found for the ICG parameters (ICG plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR) and ICG retention percentage at 15 min (ICG-R15)). The post hoc analysis revealed that NLF significantly differed from SLF (ICG-PDR: p = 0.001; ICG-R15: p = 0.001) and LC (ICG-PDR: p = 0.001; ICG-R15: p = 0.001). ALF also significantly differed from SLF (ICG-PDR: p = 0.033; ICG-R15: p = 0.034) and LC (ICG-PDR: p = 0.014; ICG-R15: p = 0.014). The sensitivity for detection of an initial stage of liver fibrosis compared to no liver fibrosis (Ishak ≥ 1) was 0.40; the corresponding specificity was 0.80. The differentiation of advanced liver fibrosis or cirrhosis (Ishak ≥ 4) compared to other stages of liver fibrosis was 0.75, with a specificity of 0.81.
Conclusions: This study shows that the ICG test, as a non-invasive diagnostic test, is able to differentiate patients with no liver fibrosis from patients with advanced liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. The ICG test seems to be helpful in monitoring patients with liver fibrosis regarding compensation levels, thus potentially enabling physicians to both detect progression from compensated liver fibrosis to advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and to initiate antifibrotic treatment at an earlier stage.