Aneurysm clips must have adequate closing forces because residual blood flow in clipped aneurysms may result in aneurysm recurrence. Such flow can be intraoperatively detected by visual inspection, microvascular Doppler sonography, indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-V), angiography, and puncture.
We present two patients with ruptured very small middle cerebral artery aneurysms (3 and 2.9 mm). The necks of both aneurysms were microsurgically clipped with Yasargil aneurysm clips without any complications.In both aneurysms, visual inspection suggested complete occlusion, but ICG-V showed persistent residual blood flow between the middle parts of the clip blades. The first patient was treated with a 5.4-mm FT744T clip (closing force of 1.47 N). After the ICG-V finding, a second 3.9-mm FT714T clip (closing force of 1.08 N) was placed on the tips of the already implanted clip to increase the closing forces. Subsequent ICG-V did not show any further residual blood flow. In the second patient, the aneurysm was clipped with an 8.0-mm FE764K clip (closing force of 1.77 N). Intraoperative ICG-V showed persistent residual blood flow within the aneurysmal dome despite complete closure of the clip. The clip was repositioned closer to the parent vessel. Consecutive ICG-V did not show any residual blood flow.
Conclusion: Visually undetected incomplete aneurysm occlusion can be revealed with ICG-V. In very small aneurysms, standard closing forces of clips may not be sufficient and complete closure of the clip branches should be intraoperatively validated with ICG-V.