Despite exponentially growing evidence supporting the use of intraoperative fluorescence imaging + indocyanine green dye, considerable variability exists in how and when it is used, and no published consensus guidelines exist.

We have conducted Delphi surveys of international experts in the use of intraoperative fluorescence imaging covering 6 distinct surgical scenarios: laparoscopic cholecystectomy; colorectal, lymphedema, gastric cancer, and plastic surgery; and thyroid and parathyroid resections. Although each survey asked experts to vote on field-specific consensus statements, they also had 29 shared statements to permit some analysis spanning the 6 specialties. T

his article summarizes these results. Among 140 participating experts, overall consensus was achieved on 16 statements, including strong agreement that using indocyanine green is extremely safe, that it can be used even when informed written consent cannot be provided, that it significantly enhances anatomical visualization and impacts how procedures are performed, and that it significantly reduces overall procedural risk. However, indocyanine green dosing and timing are procedure-specific, with considerable variability persisting for some applications, and the overall consensus is that further research is necessary to optimize this facet of intraoperative fluorescence imaging. Fluorescence imaging is gaining traction across multiple surgical specialties as an invaluable intraoperative tool. Its use in clinical practice and research seems destined to increase.

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