Cerebrovascular surgery has many intraoperative imaging modalities available. Modern technologies include intraoperative digital subtraction angiogram, indocyanine green (ICG) angiography, relative fluorescent measurement with ICG, and ultrasound. Each of these can be used effectively in the treatment of open aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation surgeries, in addition to arteriovenous fistula surgery, and cerebral bypass surgery.


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