Laparoscopic duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (L-DPPHR) is technically demanding with extreme difficulty in biliary preservation. Only a few reports of L-DPPHR are available with alarming bile leakage, and none of them revealed the long-term metabolic outcomes.

For the first time, our study explored the different dosage and timing of indocyanine green (ICG) for guiding L-DPPHR and described the long-term metabolic results. Results: Twenty-five patients were enrolled without conversion to laparotomy or pancreaticoduodenectomy. Administrating a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg 24 h before the operation had the highest relative fluorescence intensity ratio of 19.3, and it proved to guide the biliary tract the best. Fifty-six percent of patients suffered from postoperative complications with 48% experiencing pancreatic fistula and 4% having bile leakage. No one suffered from the duodenal necrosis, and there was no mortality.

When compared with the non-ICG group, the ICG group had a comparable diameter of tumor and similar safety distance from lesions to common bile duct; however, it decreased the incidence of bile leakage from 10% to none. The median length of hospital stay was 16 days. After a median follow-up of 26.6 months, no one had tumor recurrence or refractory cholangitis. No postoperative new onset of diabetes mellitus (pNODM) was observed, while pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (pPEI) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were seen in 4% of patients 12 months after the L-DPPHR.

Conclusion: L-DPPHR is feasible and safe in selected patients, and real-time ICG imaging with proper dosage and timing may greatly facilitate the identification and the prevention of biliary injury. And it seemed to be oncological equivalent to PD with preservation of metabolic function without refractory cholangitis.

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