To investigate angiographic characteristic features of diabetic choroidopathy, as well as choroidal vascular density (CVD) and fractal dimension (CFD) in diabetic eyes and controls using ultra-widefield (UWF) indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). All patients underwent UWF fluorescein angiography and ICGA. Using imageJ software, CVD and CFD was analyzed. SFCT was assessed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The image parameters were compared based on the DR stage and the presence of diabetic macular edema (DME). One-hundred six eyes from 63 patients (59.11 ± 16.31 years; male [%]: 23 [36.5%]) were included in the DM group, and 40 eyes from 22 subjects were included in the control group. The DM group had a mean age of 59.11 ± 16.31 years and a mean HbA1c percentage of 7.72 ± 1.28%. The most common ICGA findings of DC were choroidal hyperpermeability (57.5%), hypofluorescent spots (48.1%). Salt and pepper pattern (19.8%), inverted inflow phenomenon (3.8%), choroidal arterial tortuosity (24.5%), and late choroidal non-perfusion (6.6%) were more common in advanced DR. The CVD, CFD, and SFCT increased as the DR severity progressed. The DME group had a significantly higher CFD and SFCT than the non-DME group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.019, respectively).
The qualitative and quantitative UWF ICGA image analysis revealed that choroidal blood vessels became dilated, complex, and hyperpermeable as the DR progressed. These features of diabetic choroidopathy (DC) were more severe in eyes with DME than the non-DME eyes.