Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC) is the fourth most common non-surgical retinopathy associated with fluid leakage. The pathogenesis is not yet completely understood, but changes in the choroid, sclera and RPE have been described associated with venous congestion of choroidal outflow. CSC can be categorised into acute, chronic, and recurrent subtypes with recent classifications of simple and complex based on the area of RPE change seen on fundus autofluorescence.
A multimodal imaging approach is helpful in the diagnosis and management of CSC and secondary complications such as type 1 neovascularisation. Although spontaneous resolution with relatively good visual outcomes is common, treatment should be considered in patients with persistent or recurrent SRF. Treatment options include laser, systemic medications, intravitreal therapy, and surgery. Of these, argon laser for focal extramacular fluid leaks and photodynamic therapy of leakage identified by indocyanine-green angiography currently have the greatest supportive evidence.