Hypoparathyroidism is one of the main complications after total thyroidectomy, severely affecting patients’ quality of life. How to effectively protect parathyroid function after surgery and reduce the incidence of hypoparathyroidism has always been a key research area in thyroid surgery. Therefore, precise localization of parathyroid glands during surgery, effective imaging, and accurate surgical resection have become hot topics of concern for thyroid surgeons. In response to this clinical phenomenon, this study compared several different imaging methods for parathyroid surgery, including nanocarbon, indocyanine green, near-infrared imaging techniques, and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile combined with gamma probe imaging technology. The advantages and disadvantages of each method were analyzed, providing scientific recommendations for future parathyroid imaging. In recent years, some related basic and clinical research has also been conducted in thyroid surgery. This article reviewed relevant literature and provided an overview of the practical application progress of various imaging techniques in parathyroid surgery. ICG, as a fluorescent dye, is safe, feasible, and cost-effective. It has significant advantages in determining the blood supply of the parathyroid glands and predicting postoperative parathyroid function. It is believed that it will have broad development prospects in the field of thyroid surgery in the future


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