Background: To explore the application value of intraoperative imaging by indocyanine green (ICG) injection through the collection system of the urinary tract for Da Vinci Xi robot navigation in complex surgeries on the upper urinary tract.
Results: Of the fourteen patients, three had distal ureteral stricture, five had ureteropelvic junction obstruction, four presented duplicate kidney and ureter, one had a giant ureter, and one presented an ipsilateral native ureteral tumor after renal transplantation. The surgeries in all patients were successful, with no conversion to open surgery. In addition, no injury to the surrounding organs, anastomotic stenosis or leakage, or ICG injection-related side effects were detected. Imaging at 3 months post-operatively revealed improved renal functions compared to those before the operation. No tumor recurrence or metastasis was observed in patient 14.
Conclusion: Fluorescence imaging compensating for the inadequacy of tactile feedback in the surgical operating system has advantages in identifying the ureter, determining the site of ureteral stricture, and protecting the blood flow for the ureter.