Indocyanine green (ICG), a well-known molecule employed in medicine for over five decades, has emerged as a versatile dye widely embraced across various surgical disciplines. In gynecologic oncology, its prevalent use revolves around the detection of sentinel lymph nodes. However, the true potential of ICG extends beyond this singular application, owing to its pragmatic utility, cost-effectiveness, and safety profile. Furthermore, ICG has been introduced in the theranostic landscape, marking a significant juncture in the evolution of its clinical utility. This narrative review aims to describe the expanding horizons of ICG fluorescence in gynecologic oncology, beyond the sentinel lymph node biopsy.

The manifold applications reported within this manuscript include: 1) lymphography; 2) angiography; 3) nerve visualization; 4) ICG-driven resections; and 5) theranostic. The extensive exploration across these numerous applications, some of which are still in the pre-clinical phase, serves as a hypothesis generator, aiming to stimulate the development of clinical studies capable of expanding the use of this drug in our field, enhancing the care of gynecological cancer patients.

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