This comprehensive review aims to explore the applications of indocyanine green (ICG) in robot-assisted urological surgery through a detailed examination of fluorescence-guided techniques. An extensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus, using keywords such as “indocyanine green,” “ICG”, “NIRF”, “Near Infrared Fluorescence”, “robot-assisted”, and “urology”. Additional suitable articles were collected by manually cross-referencing the bibliography of previously selected papers. The integration of the Firefly® technology in the Da Vinci® robotic system has opened new avenues for the advancement and exploration of different urological procedures. ICG is a fluorophore widely used in near-infrared fluorescence-guided techniques. The synergistic combination of intraoperative support, safety profiles and widespread availability comprises an additional asset that empowers ICG-guided robotic surgery.  NIRF surgery could not only offer experienced surgeons the opportunity to tackle complex interventions, but could also enable more effective mentoring for young surgeons. By leveraging the advantages provided by this technique in identifying anatomical structures and guiding surgical dissection, the possibility of safely approaching various surgical urological techniques becomes evident. This overview of the current state of the art illustrates the potential advantages and broad applications of combining ICG-fluorescence guidance with robotic-assisted urological surgery.

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