Background and objective: Flaps and grafts are used for filling dead space, ureteral substitution, and as mesh alternatives. The surgical robot is invaluable in urologic reconstructive surgery due to the ability of the robot to reach the deep pelvis, its minimally invasive access, the ability to use indocyanine green to identify structures and assess tissue perfusion and viability, and ergonomics for the surgeon. Robotic reconstruction can involve tissue transfer in the form of flaps and grafts to provide form and function to organs that have been damaged by iatrogenic injuries, trauma, infections, cancer, radiation injury, or congenital abnormalities. Common flaps and grafts can be readily adapted to the robotic approach. In this literature review, we examine the robotic use of flaps and grafts in reconstructive urology.

Conclusions: Various flaps and grafts have been adapted for robotic reconstructive urology. As the field develops, refinement of techniques and innovation in flaps and employment of the robot will propel this field forward. More studies, especially comparative studies, are needed to elucidate the flaps and grafts that are most likely to be successful with the least morbidity for each use case.

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