Introduction: Bile duct injuries avoidance is a key goal of biliary surgery. In this prospective study we evaluate the safety and feasibility of ICG fluorescent cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) focusing on the optimization of timing and dose administration.
Material and methods: From February to December 2022 fifty-four LC were performed with fluorescence imaging in our surgical department. 2.5 mg ICG were administered intravenously between 5 h and 24 h before surgery. Near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRF-C) was performed. Adequate fluorescence was evaluated by comparing agent accumulation in the gallbladder and the extrahepatic duct and the background of liver parenchyma.
Results: Biliary anatomy was identified in all cases. Median time of ICG administration was 11 h previous surgery and three groups of patients were identified: group A receiving ICG 5-9 h, group B 10-14 h, group C 15-24 h before surgery. Peak contrast was gained in group B, with minimal fluorescence of liver parenchyma and more intense visibility of the biliary tract. Intraoperative cholangiogram was unnecessary in all cases.
Conclusion: Fluorescent cholangiography during LC is safe and feasible overcoming the limits of other techniques available. 2.5 mg ICG administered 10-14 h before surgery produces optimal outcomes for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent cholangiography.