The indocyanine green fluorescence imaging system is a surgical tool with increasing applications in colon and rectal surgery that has received growing acceptance in various surgical disciplines as a potentially valid method to enhance surgical field visualization, improve lymph node retrieval, and decrease anastomotic leak. Small noncomparative prospective trials have shown that intraoperative fluorescence imaging is a safe and feasible method to assess anastomotic perfusion and that its use may impact anastomotic leak rates. However, larger prospective and randomized studies are required to validate its role and impact in colorectal surgery. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of the use of immunofluorescence in colon and rectal surgery, as well as new applications in robotic colon and rectal resections.

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