Background: Indocyanine green (ICG) imaging has been increasingly used for intraoperative guidance in colorectal surgery over the past decade. The aim of this study was to review and organize, according to different type of use, all available literature on ICG guided colorectal surgery and highlight areas in need of further research and discuss future perspectives.

Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched systematically through November 2022 for all available studies on fluorescence-guided surgery in colorectal surgery.

Results: Available studies described ICG use in colorectal surgery for perfusion assessment, ureteral and urethral assessment, lymphatic mapping, and hepatic and peritoneal metastases assessment. Although the level of evidence is low, results are promising, especially in the role of ICG in reducing anastomotic leaks.

Conclusions: ICG imaging is a safe and relatively cheap imaging modality in colorectal surgery, especially for perfusion assessment. Work is underway regarding its use in lymphatic mapping, ureter identification, and the assessment of intraperitoneal metastatic disease.

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