Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided surgery is a modality of intra-operative navigation that might support the surgeon with enhanced visualization of anatomical structures in real time. Over the last years, it has emerged as one of the most promising and rapidly developing technical innovations in surgery.

The most popular current clinical applications include fluorescence cholangiography, bowel anastomotic perfusion assessment, fluorescence-guided lymphography for sentinel lymph-node identification and guided lymphadenectomy and the possible use in oncological surgery for the identification and localization of tumors and the diagnosis and treatment of peritoneal carcinosis.

This paper provides an overview of the multiple fields of applications of ICG fluorescence-guided surgery in visceral and oncological surgery, discussing indications summarizing most recent and significative available literature and giving technical notes of use.

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