The main objective of this study was to review and perform a meta-analysis of current literature on the use of indocyanine green for sentinel lymph node detection in pelvic gynecologic cancer. We included all studies focusing on indications and procedures associated with the use of ICG in gynecologic surgery and available on the Medline and Pubmed database. For the meta-analysis, random effect models were used for estimation of the 95 % detection rate and 95 % confidence interval, and stratified analyses by cancer type, concentration and localization of injection were performed. A total of 147 articles were included, of which 91 were studied in a meta-analysis.

Results concerning detection rate by indocyanine green injection site were found to be 95.1 % and 97.3 % respectively for intracervical injection in 2 or 4 quadrants, and 77.0 % and 94.8 % for hysteroscopic and intradermal injection respectively. Results concerning detection rate by cancer type were 95.8 %, 95.2 %, 94.7 % and 95.7 % respectively for cervical, endometrial, vulvar and endometrial/cervical cancers. Finally, the results concerning detection rate by indocyanine green concentration were 91.2 %, 95.7 %, 96.7 % and 97.7 % for concentrations of <1.25 mg/ml, 1.25 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml respectively. In conclusion, indocyanine green is shown to allow highlighting of sentinel lymph nodes with good reliability with an overall indocyanine green detection rate of 95.5 %.

Our literature review revealed that indocyanine green feasibility has also been demonstrated in several surgical contexts, notably for reconstructive surgery and detection of endometriosis.

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