Introduction: Current assessment of critical tissue in genitourinary reconstruction, including graft beds and tissue flaps, primarily relies upon qualitative visual and tactile assessment by experienced surgeons. Here we explore the feasibility of using intravenous indocyanine green (ICG) for semi-quantitative assessment of perfusion in complex open urethral reconstruction.

Method: A standardized protocol for intravenous use of ICG and near-infrared fluorescence was established. Black and white mode was used for qualitative assessment of perfusion based on signal brightness. Quantitative perfusion mode was used to assess relative perfusion to tissue of interest compared to a control area with similar tissue type outside of the studied area. Real-time perfusion was visualized as percentage of perfusion relative to control.Conclusion: The application of near-infrared fluorescence tools in open genitourinary reconstruction has the potential to advance quantitative assessment of graft, flaps, and other critical tissue planes, and help establish meaningful perfusion threshold and correlate with clinical outcomes.

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