This study aimed to report our experience in indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) in pediatric robotics. The data of 55 patients (35 boys and 20 girls), who underwent robotic surgery using ICG fluorescence in three institutions over the last 7 years, were retrospectively reviewed. The following robotic procedures were included: pyeloplasty (n = 21), complex Lich-Gregoir ureteral reimplantation (n = 8), varicocelectomy (n = 7), adnexal pathology resection (n = 8), partial nephrectomy (n = 4), nephrectomy (n = 4), renal cyst removal (n = 2), and excision of prostatic utricle (n = 1). The ICG was injected intravenously in all indications except for varicocele where intratesticular injection was done, and prostatic utricle or paraureteral diverticulum where trans-catheter injection was done. The ICG dosage was 0.2-0.3 mg/mL/kg. All the procedures were performed using da Vinci Xi platform. Firefly® allowed to switch form bright light to ICG-NIRF view and vice versa. All the procedures were accomplished in robotics without conversions to laparoscopy or open surgery. No episodes of allergy or anaphylaxis to ICG were recorded.

An excellent ICG-NIRF view of target organs was obtained in all procedures. Based on our experience, we believe that application of ICG FGS in pediatric robotics enhances the identification of critical anatomical elements and pathological structures, thereby positively impacting both oncological and functional outcomes. This technique is safe, feasible, and versatile. We advocate the consideration of ICG as the standard of care in certain procedures such as partial nephrectomy, varicocele repair, tumor resection, and ovarian torsion. Nonetheless, further investigations are warranted to explore its potential broader applications in pediatric urology.

Recommended Posts