Patterns of ischaemia and reperfusion in nipple-sparing mastectomy reconstruction with indocyanine green angiography

Intraoperative assessment of mastectomy flaps and nipple-areola complex (NAC) with indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) for decision-making in delayed breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) remains to be fully elucidated. We evaluated patterns of ischaemia and reperfusion in NSM with delayed breast reconstruction, and their outcomes.

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